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Update : Interim guidelines for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection — United States, February 2016
  • Published Date:
    February 26, 2016
  • Language:
    English
Filetype[PDF-161.84 KB]


Details:
  • Corporate Authors:
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
  • Description:
    Recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area of Zika virus transmission -- Recommendations for pregnant women with history of travel to an area of Zika virus transmission -- How to treat pregnant women with diagnoses of Zika virus disease.

    On February 19, 2016, this report was posted as an MMWR Early Release on the MMWR website (http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr).

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ≥2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

    Zika virus is primarily transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes species mosquitoes, most commonly Aedes aegypti and possibly Aedes albopictus (3). Zika virus was first detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in the spring of 2015 (4) and had spread to 26 countries and territories in the Americas as of February 17, 2016 (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html). In October 2015, a marked increase in the number of infants with microcephaly was reported in Brazil (5). Because of the temporal and geographic occurrence of Zika virus infection in pregnant women before the reported increase in microcephaly, a possible association with prenatal Zika virus infection was postulated (5). Laboratory evidence from a limited number of cases with microcephaly has supported this potential association (6,7). Other documented modes of Zika virus transmission include intrapartum transmission from a mother with viremia to her infant, sexual transmission, and laboratory exposures (8–11). Additionally, blood transfusion (10) and organ or tissue transplantation pose theoretical risks for transmission. There is no reported evidence of transmission through breastfeeding, although Zika virus RNA has been found in breast milk (9).

    Although the exact incubation period of Zika virus disease has yet to be determined, evidence from case reports and experience from related flavivirus infections indicate that the incubation period likely is 3 days to 2 weeks (12). Symptomatic disease is generally mild and characterized by two or more of the following: acute onset of fever, rash, arthralgia, or nonpurulent conjunctivitis (2,13). The rash associated with Zika virus disease has been described as pruritic (13) and maculopapular (14).

    Suggested citation for this article: Fleming-Dutra KE, Nelson JM, Fischer M, et al. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016;65:182–187. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6507e1.

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