Urinary Concentrations of Four Parabens in the U.S. Population: NHANES 2005–2006
Published Date:Jan 04 2010
Source:Environ Health Perspect. 118(5):679-685.
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
P-hydroxybenzoic Acid Esters
Solid Phase Extraction
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Parabens are widely used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing.
We assessed exposure to methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl parabens in a representative sample of persons ≥ 6 years of age in the U.S. general population from the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
We analyzed 2,548 urine samples by using online solid-phase extraction coupled to isotope dilution–high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
We detected methyl paraben (MP) and propyl paraben (PP) in 99.1% and 92.7% of the samples, respectively. We detected ethyl (42.4%) and butyl (47%) parabens less frequently and at median concentrations at least one order of magnitude lower than MP (63.5 μg/L) and PP (8.7 μg/L). Least-square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of MP were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) among non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites except at older ages (≥ 60 years). Adolescent and adult females had significantly higher (p < 0.01) LSGM concentrations of MP and PP than did adolescent and adult males. Females were more likely than males [adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs): MP, 3.2 (2.99–5.27); PP, 4.19 (2.34–7.49)] and non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites [MP, 4.99 (2.62–9.50); PP, 3.6 (1.86–7.05)] to have concentrations above the 95th percentile.
The general U.S. population was exposed to several parabens during 2005–2006. Differences in the urinary concentrations of MP and PP by sex and race/ethnicity likely reflect the use of personal care products containing these compounds.
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