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Clearing the smoke around the TB-HIV syndemic: smoking as a critical issue for TB and HIV treatment and care
  • Published Date:
    Sep 2015
  • Source:
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 19(9):1003-1006
  • Language:
Filetype[PDF-74.96 KB]

  • Alternative Title:
    Int J Tuberc Lung Dis
  • Description:
    The collision of the tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics has been described as a 'syndemic' due to the synergistic impact on the burden of both diseases. This paper explains the urgent need for practitioners and policy makers to address a third epidemic that exacerbates TB, HIV and TB-HIV. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death worldwide. Smoking is more prevalent among persons diagnosed with TB or HIV. Smoking is associated with tuberculous infection, TB disease and poorer anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes. It is also associated with an increased risk of smoking-related diseases among people living with HIV, and smoking may also inhibit the effectiveness of life-saving ART. In this paper, we propose integrating into TB and HIV programmes evidence-based strategies from the 'MPOWER' package recommended by the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Specific actions that can be readily incorporated into current practice are recommended to improve TB and HIV outcomes and care, and reduce the unnecessary burden of death and disease due to smoking.

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