Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations during Pregnancy and Infant Birthweight for Gestational Age: A Three-Cohort Study
Published Date:Nov 17 2015
Source:Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 30(2):124-133.
Birthweight For Gestational Age
European Continental Ancestry Group
Infant, Small For Gestational Age
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4749469
Funding:R01 HD34543/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
M01 RR000046/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
R01 HD039373/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
HD28684A/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
R01 HD034543/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
RR0046/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
HD39373/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
R01 HD32562/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
R01 HD28684/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
CC999999/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
U01 DP000143/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
R01 HD032562/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
HD37584/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
R01 HD037584/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
R24 HD050924/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
P2C HD050924/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States
200-2008-27956-12/PHS HHS/United States
In response to inconsistent findings, we investigated associations between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and infant birthweight for gestational age (BW/GA), including potential effect modification by maternal race/ethnicity and infant sex.
Data from 2,558 pregnant women were combined in a nested case-control study (preterm and term) sampled from three cohorts: the Omega study, the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition study, and the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health study. Maternal 25(OH)D concentrations were sampled at 4 to 29 weeks’ gestation (80% 14–26 weeks). BW/GA was modeled as sex-and gestational age-specific birthweight z-scores. General linear regression models (adjusting for age, education, parity, pre-pregnancy body mass index, season at blood draw, and smoking) assessed 25(OH)D concentrations in relation to BW/GA.
Among non-Hispanic Black women, the positive association between 25(OH)D concentrations and BW/GA was of similar magnitude in pregnancies with female or male infants (beta (β)=0.015, standard error (SE)=0.007, P=0.025; β=0.018, SE=0.006, P=0.003, respectively). Among non-Hispanic White women, 25(OH)D-BW/GA association was observed only with male infants and the effect size was lower (β=0.008, SE=0.003, P=0.02).
Maternal serum concentrations of 25(OH)D in early and mid-pregnancy were positively associated with BW/GA among non-Hispanic Black male and female infants and non-Hispanic White male infants. Effect modification by race/ethnicity may be due, in part, to overall lower concentrations of 25(OH)D in non-Hispanic Blacks. Reasons for effect modification by infant sex remain unclear.
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