Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. Chapter 19: Enhanced surveillance
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Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. Chapter 19: Enhanced surveillance

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    • Alternative Title:
      Enhanced surveillance
    • Journal Article:
      Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases
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      Chapter 19 of: Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. 5th edition, 2011.

      Surveillance activities are critical to detecting vaccine-preventable diseases and gaining information to help control or address a problem. However, complete and accurate reporting of cases is dependent on many factors, such as reporting source, timeliness of investigation, and completeness of data. In addition, various methods for conducting surveillance are used to collect information, depending on disease incidence, specificity of clinical presentation, available laboratory testing, control strategies, public health goals, and stage of vaccination program. For vaccine-preventable diseases, passive surveillance is the most common method, although active surveillance may be needed in special surveillance situations. Active surveillance is often short-term and usually requires more funding than passive surveillance.

      Common systems used for disease surveillance include national notifiable disease reporting; physician, hospital, or laboratory-based surveillance, population-based surveillance. Sentinel surveillance involves a limited number of recruited participants, such as healthcare providers or hospitals, that report specified health events that may be generalizable to the whole population.

      The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) is the passive surveillance system that includes all the diseases and conditions under national surveillance. Efforts are being made to integrate and enhance the surveillance systems for national notifiable diseases. A collaborative effort between CDC and state and local health departments is in progress to enhance surveillance system capabilities with the implementation of the National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS). NEDSS will eventually replace the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS) and will become the electronic system used to report national notifiable diseases and conditions in the United States and territories.

      Enhancing the surveillance system is only one part of improving surveillance data; data for notifiable diseases are still dependent on reporting, timeliness and completeness. This chapter outlines activities that may be useful at the state and local level to improve reporting for vaccine-preventable diseases. Some are more routinely used (encouraging provider reporting), while others, such as searching laboratory or hospital records, may be more helpful under certain circumstances.


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