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Glutathione Reaction Products with a Chemical Allergen, Methylene-diphenyl Diisocyanate, Stimulate Alternative Macrophage Activation and Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    25635619
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4667722
  • Funding:
    OH010438/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
    OH010494/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
    R21 OH010438/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
    R21 OH010494/OH/NIOSH CDC HHS/United States
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Description:
    Isocyanates have been a leading chemical cause of occupational asthma since their utility for generating polyurethane was first recognized over 60 years ago, yet the mechanisms of isocyanate asthma pathogenesis remain unclear. The present study provides in vivo evidence that a GSH mediated pathway underlies asthma-like eosinophilic inflammatory responses to respiratory tract isocyanate exposure. In naïve mice, a mixture of GSH reaction products with the chemical allergen, methylene-diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), induced innate immune responses, characterized by significantly increased airway levels of Chitinase YM-1 and IL-12/IL-23β (but not α) subunit. However, in mice immunologically sensitized to MDI via prior skin exposure, identical GSH-MDI doses induced substantially greater inflammatory responses, including significantly increased airway eosinophil numbers and mucus production, along with IL-12/IL-23β, chitinases, and other indicators of alternative macrophage activation. The "self"-protein albumin in mouse airway fluid was uniquely modified by GSH-MDI at position (414)K, a preferred site of MDI reactivity on human albumin. The (414)K-MDI conjugation appears to covalently cross-link GSH to albumin via GSH's NH2-terminus, a unique conformation possibly resulting from cyclized mono(GSH)-MDI or asymmetric (S,N'-linked) bis(GSH)-MDI conjugates. Together, the data support a possible thiol mediated transcarbamoylating mechanism linking MDI exposure to pathogenic eosinophilic inflammatory responses.