Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. Chapter 2: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)
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Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. Chapter 2: Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)

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  • English

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    • Alternative Title:
      Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib);Manual for the surveillance of VPD;VPD surveillance manual;
    • Journal Article:
      Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases
    • Description:
      Chapter 2 of: Manual for the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases. 2015.

      Haemophilus influenzae invasive disease is caused by the bacterium Haemophilus influenzae. H. influenzae may be either encapsulated (typeable) or unencapsulated (nontypeable). Six antigenically distinct capsular types of H. influenzae (types a–f) that can cause invasive disease in persons of any age have been identified. Nontypeable strains can also cause invasive disease but more commonly cause mucosal infections.

      Invasive H. influenzae diseases include clinical syndromes of meningitis, bacteremia or sepsis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, pericarditis, and cellulitis. In contrast, syndromes of mucosal infections such as bronchitis, sinusitis, and otitis media are considered noninvasive disease. The noninvasive syndromes are not nationally notifiable.

      Before the introduction of effective vaccines, H. influenzae serotype b (Hib) was the cause of more than 95% of invasive H. influenzae diseases among children younger than 5 years of age. Hib was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States among children younger than 5 years of age and a major cause of other life-threatening invasive bacterial diseases in this age group. Meningitis occurred in approximately two-thirds of children with invasive Hib disease, resulting in hearing impairment or severe permanent neurologic sequelae, such as mental retardation, seizure disorder, cognitive and developmental delay, and paralysis in 15%–30% of survivors. Approximately 4% of all cases were fatal.


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