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Examining the Association Between Implementation and Outcomes
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    Although there is an established literature supporting the efficacy of a variety of prevention programs, there has been less empirical work on the translation of such research to everyday practice or when scaled-up state-wide. There is a considerable need for more research on factors that enhance implementation of programs and optimize outcomes, particularly in school settings. The current paper examines how the implementation fidelity of an increasingly popular and widely disseminated prevention model called, School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS), relates to student outcomes within the context of a state-wide scale-up effort. Data come from a scale-up effort of SW-PBIS in Maryland; the sample included 421 elementary and middle schools trained in SW-PBIS. SW-PBIS fidelity, as measured by one of three fidelity measures, was found to be associated with higher math achievement, higher reading achievement, and lower truancy. School contextual factors were related to implementation levels and outcomes. Implications for scale-up efforts of behavioral and mental health interventions and measurement considerations are discussed.

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    1U49CE000728/CE/NCIPC CDC HHS/United States
    K01CE001333-01/CE/NCIPC CDC HHS/United States
    R01 MH067948/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
    R01 MH67948-1A1/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
    T32 MH019545/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
    T32 MH19545-11/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/United States
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