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Longitudinal Associations between Sex, Diabetes Self-Care, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Youth with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
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Details:
  • Pubmed ID:
    24582483
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC4500167
  • Description:
    Objective

    To examine the longitudinal associations between sex, diabetes self-care and the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of children and adolescents with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes.

    Study design

    The sample included 910 Type 1 and 241 Type 2 participants, ages 10–22 at baseline, from SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth, a longitudinal observational study. The primary outcome measure was the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Repeated measures, mixed model regression analysis was conducted using data from baseline and at least one follow-up assessment, spanning approximately 4 years.

    Results

    HRQL was higher among those with Type 1 versus Type 2 diabetes. Among Type 1 participants, higher (better) PedsQL total scores over time were related to higher parent education (p=0.0007), lower HbA1c values (p<.0001), and greater physical activity during the past 7 days (p=0.0001). There was a significant interaction between sex and age (p<0.0001); girls’ HRQL remained stable or decreased over time, whereas males’ HRQL increased. For participants with Type 2 diabetes, there was no significant interaction by age and sex, but lower total HRQL was related to being female (p=0.011) and higher BMI-z scores (p=0.014).

    Conclusions

    HRQL in this cohort varied by diabetes type. The interaction between sex and age for Type 1 participants, coupled with poorer HRQL among females than males with Type 2 diabetes, suggests the impacts of diabetes on HRQL differ by sex and should be considered in clinical management. Encouraging physical activity and weight control continue to be important in improving HRQL.

  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Funding:
    00097/PHS HHS/United States
    1U18DP002709/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    1UL1RR026314-01/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    200-2010-35171/PHS HHS/United States
    DP-05-069/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    DP-10-001/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    M01 RR00069/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    M01RR00037/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    P30 DK057516/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    P30 DK57516/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/United States
    U01 DP000244/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000244/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000245/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000245/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000246/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000246/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000247/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000247/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000248/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000248/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000250/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000250/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000254/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U01 DP000254/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18 DP002708/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18 DP002710/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18 DP002714/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18 DP003256/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP000247-06A1/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002708-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002710-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U18DP002714/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
    U48/CCU419249/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU519239/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU819241-3/PHS HHS/United States
    U48/CCU919219/PHS HHS/United States
    U58/CCU019235-4/PHS HHS/United States
    U58CCU919256/PHS HHS/United States
    UL1 RR026314/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    UL1 RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
    UL1RR029882/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/United States
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