Maternal Periconceptional Exposure to Cigarette Smoking and Congenital Limb Deficiencies
Published Date:Jul 31 2013
Source:Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2013; 27(6):509-520.
Limb Deformities, Congenital
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Tobacco Smoke Pollution
Funding:AVU3/Intramural CDC HHS/United States
P30 ES005605/ES/NIEHS NIH HHS/United States
U01DD000492/DD/NCBDD CDC HHS/United States
Congenital limb deficiencies (LD)s are characterised by the failure or disruption in formation of limbs or digits. Epidemiological research on maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and LDs is inconclusive.
Data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study were used to examine LDs and maternal exposure to active or passive cigarette smoke. Mothers of LD case (n = 906) and unaffected control (n = 8352) pregnancies from October 1997 through December 2007 reported on exposure type and quantity. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval [95% CI]; interactions with folic acid (FA) intake were tested.
For any LD, ORs were elevated for active (1.24 [95% CI 1.01, 1.53]), passive (home) (1.28 [95% CI 1.03, 1.59]), and ‘active and passive’ (1.34 [95% CI 1.05, 1.70]) exposures. The ORs for longitudinal LDs were elevated for passive (home) (1.62 [95% CI 1.14, 2.31]) and ‘active and passive’ (1.62 [95% CI 1.09, 2.41]) exposures. The OR for pre-axial LDs were elevated for any (1.39 [95% CI 1.01, 1.90]), active (1.53 [95% CI 1.03, 2.29]), passive (home) (1.82 [95% CI 1.23, 2.69]), and ‘active and passive’ (1.87 [95% CI 1.20, 2.92]) exposures. For lower limbs, ORs were elevated for passive (home) (1.44 [95% CI 1.01, 2.04]) and smoking 15 or more cigarettes/day (2.25 [95% CI 1.27, 3.97]). Interactions showed that ORs for any passive smoke exposure were 0.43 and 0.59 higher in the absence of FA intake for any and terminal transverse LDs.
Maternal active smoking and exposure to passive cigarette smoke emerged as a potential teratogen that affects limb and digit formation. FA was not found to mitigate the impact.
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