Hepatitis B virus infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi and transmission to infants
Published Date:Nov 06 2013
Source:J Hepatol. 60(3):508-514.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4411040
Funding:D43 TW001039/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States
DHHS/NIH/FIC 2-D43 TW01039-06/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States
P30 AI050410/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
P30-AI50410/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States
R24 TW00798/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States
R24 TW007988/TW/FIC NIH HHS/United States
SIP 13-01 U48-CCU409660-09/PHS HHS/United States
SIP 22-09 U48-DP001944-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
SIP 26-04 U48-DP000059-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
Description:Background & Aims
The extent of HBV infection to infants of HBV/HIV-coinfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of HBV infection among antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected pregnant women in Malawi and examine HBV transmission to their infants.
Plasma from 2048 HIV-infected, Malawian women and their infants were tested for markers of HBV infection. Study participants were provided standard-of-care health services, which included administration of pentavalent vaccine to infants at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age.
One-hundred and three women (5%) were HBsAg-positive; 70 of these HBsAg-positive women were also HBV-DNA-positive. Sixteen women (0.8%) were HBV-DNA-positive but HBsAg-negative. Five of 51 infants (9.8%) born to HBsAg-positive and/or HBV-DNA-positive women were HBV-DNA-positive by 48 weeks of age. HBV DNA concentrations of two infants of mothers who received extended lamivudine-containing anti-HIV prophylaxis were <4 log10 IU/ml compared to ≥8 log10 IU/ml in three infants of mothers who did not.
HBV DNA was detected in nearly 10% of infants born to HBV/HIV-coinfected women. Antenatal testing for HIV and HBV, if instituted, can facilitate implementation of prophylactic measures against infant infection by both viruses. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the European Association for the Study of the Liver.
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