Racial and nonracial discrimination and smoking status among South African adults ten years after apartheid
Published Date:Apr 30 2014
Source:Tob Control. 23(0):e114-e121.
Pubmed Central ID:PMC4214915
Funding:1R01DP000097-01/DP/NCCDPHP CDC HHS/United States
3R25CA057711-18S1/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
R25 CA057711/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
R25 CA113710/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
R25CA-113710/CA/NCI NIH HHS/United States
Despite a long history of discrimination and persisting racial disparities in smoking prevalence, little research exists on the relationship between discrimination and smoking in South Africa.
This analysis examined chronic (day to day) and acute (lifetime) experiences of racial and nonracial (e.g., age, gender, or physical appearance) discrimination and smoking status among respondents to the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH). Logistic regression models were constructed using SAS-Callable SUDAAN.
Both chronic racial discrimination (RR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.14–1.85) and chronic nonracial discrimination (RR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.37–2.08) predicted a higher risk of smoking, but neither type of acute discrimination did. Total (sum of racial and nonracial) chronic discrimination (RR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.20–1.78) and total acute discrimination (RR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.01–1.60) predicted a higher risk of current smoking.
Racial and nonracial discrimination may be related to South African adults’ smoking behavior, but this relationship likely varies by the timing and frequency of these experiences. Future research should use longitudinal data to identify the temporal ordering of the relationships studied, include areas outside of South Africa to increase generalizability, and consider the implications of these findings for smoking cessation approaches in South Africa.
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