Unprogrammed Deworming in the Kibera Slum, Nairobi: Implications for Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases
Advanced Search
Select up to three search categories and corresponding keywords using the fields to the right. Refer to the Help section for more detailed instructions.
Clear All

Unprogrammed Deworming in the Kibera Slum, Nairobi: Implications for Control of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases

Filetype[PDF-192.61 KB]


  • Alternative Title:
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis
  • Description:
    Background Programs for control of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are increasingly evaluating national mass drug administration (MDA) interventions. However, “unprogrammed deworming” (receipt of deworming drugs outside of nationally-run STH control programs) occurs frequently. Failure to account for these activities may compromise evaluations of MDA effectiveness. Methods We used a cross-sectional study design to evaluate STH infection and unprogrammed deworming among infants (aged 6–11 months), preschool-aged children (PSAC, aged 1–4 years), and school-aged children (SAC, aged 5–14 years) in Kibera, Kenya, an informal settlement not currently receiving nationally-run MDA for STH. STH infection was assessed by triplicate Kato-Katz. We asked heads of households with randomly-selected children about past-year receipt and source(s) of deworming drugs. Local non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and school staff participating in school-based deworming were interviewed to collect information on drug coverage. Results Of 679 children (18 infants, 184 PSAC, and 477 SAC) evaluated, 377 (55%) reported receiving at least one unprogrammed deworming treatment during the past year. PSAC primarily received treatments from chemists (48.3%) or healthcare centers (37.7%); SAC most commonly received treatments at school (55.0%). Four NGOs reported past-year deworming activities at 47 of >150 schools attended by children in our study area. Past-year deworming was negatively associated with any-STH infection (34.8% vs 45.4%, p = 0.005). SAC whose most recent deworming medication was sourced from a chemist were more often infected with Trichuris (38.0%) than those who received their most recent treatment from a health center (17.3%) or school (23.1%) (p = 0.05). Conclusion Unprogrammed deworming was received by more than half of children in our study area, from multiple sources. Both individual-level treatment and unprogrammed preventive chemotherapy may serve an important public health function, particularly in the absence of programmed deworming; however, they may also lead to an overestimation of programmed MDA effectiveness. A standardized, validated tool is needed to assess unprogrammed deworming.
  • Document Type:
  • Collection(s):
  • Main Document Checksum:
  • File Type:

You May Also Like

Checkout today's featured content at stacks.cdc.gov