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Measuring and Monitoring Progress Toward Health Equity: Local Challenges for Public Health
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    To address health disparities, local health departments need high-resolution data on subpopulations and geographic regions, but the quality and availability of these data are often suboptimal. The Boston Public Health Commission and the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health faced challenges in acquiring and using community-level data essential for the design and implementation of programs that can improve the health of those who have social or economic disadvantages. To overcome these challenges, both agencies used practical and innovative strategies for data management and analysis, including augmentation of existing population surveys, the use of combined data sets, and the generation of small-area estimates. These and other strategies show how community-level health data can be analyzed, expanded, and integrated into existing public health surveillance and program infrastructure to inform jurisdictional planning and tailoring of interventions aimed at achieving optimal health for all members of a community.