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Sexually transmitted disease surveillance 2004 supplement; Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) annual report, 2004
  • Published Date:
    December 2005
Filetype[PDF - 721.94 KB]


Details:
  • Personal Authors:
  • Corporate Authors:
    National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention (U.S.), Division of STD Prevention.
  • Document Type:
  • Description:
    "With 330,132 gonorrhea cases reported in 2004, gonorrhea is the second most frequently reported communicable disease in the United States. Gonorrhea rates in the United States declined 73.8% during 1975-1997. After a small increase in the rate in 1998, the gonorrhea rate has continued to decrease since 1999 to the current rate of 113.5 per 100,000 persons. Gonorrhea rates remain high in the southeastern states, among African-Americans, and among adolescents of all racial and ethnic groups. The health impact of gonorrhea is largely related to its role as a major cause of pelvic inflammatory disease, which frequently leads to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. In addition, data suggest that gonorrhea facilitates HIV transmission. The treatment and control of gonorrhea has been complicated by the ability of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. The appearance of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) and chromosomally mediated penicillin- and tetracycline-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (CMRNG) in the 1970s eventually led to the abandonment of these drugs as therapies for gonorrhea. The current CDC-recommended primary therapies for gonorrhea are two broad-spectrum cephalosporins (ceftriaxone and cefixime), and three fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin). However, since the 1990s, fluoroquinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) have been reported from many parts of the world, including the United States9-14 The increased prevalence of QRNG in Asia (where prevalence in several countries exceeds 60%), the Pacific Islands, Hawaii, and California, prompted CDC to recommend that fluoroquinolones not be used to treat patients with gonorrhea acquired in these areas with high QRNG prevalence. Data collected during January-September 2003 from all Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP) sites indicated an increase in QRNG among men who have sex with men (MSM) and led CDC to recommend in early 2004 that fluoroquinolones not be used to treat patients who are MSM." -- p. 1.

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