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National enteric disease surveillance : typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance overview
  • Published Date:
    December 2011
  • Language:
Filetype[PDF-482.38 KB]

  • Alternative Title:
    National typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance overview ; Typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance overview ;
  • Description:
    Surveillance system overview: national typhoid and paratyphoid fever surveillance.

    Infection with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (the causative agent of typhoid fever) causes an estimated 20 million cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 deaths annually worldwide. In the United States, typhoid fever is now a rare disease, with about 400 laboratory- confirmed cases reported per year. Not all cases are diagnosed; however, the total annual number of Salmonella serotype Typhi infections is estimated at 5,750 cases per year, 1,900 of them acquired in the United States. Dramatic declines in incidence of and mortality from typhoid fever occurred in the United States after widespread implementation of municipal water and sewage treatment systems in the first half of the 20th century. In recent years, most cases in the United States have been associated with foreign travel.

    Since 1975, using a standard report form, state and local health officials have reported detailed epidemiologic information, including patient demographic and clinical information, typhoid vaccination status, and travel history, on laboratory-confirmed cases of typhoid fever to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A case of typhoid fever is defined as an acute illness compatible with typhoid fever in which Salmonella serotype Typhi is isolated from a normally sterile site or from stool or urine. Travel-associated typhoid fever is defined as illness in a person who traveled outside of the United States in the 30 days before illness onset, and domestically acquired typhoid fever is defined as illness in a person without such a travel history.

    Paratyphoid fever, which is caused by Salmonella serotypes Paratyphi A, Paratyphi B1, and Paratyphi C, is not nationally notifiable. However, in 2008 the surveillance system was expanded, becoming National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance, to allow state and local health departments to also report information on cases of paratyphoid fever.

    The national typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever surveillance data are dynamic; data from previous years may change as surveillance case reports are added or corrected.

    Reference citation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance Overview. Atlanta, Georgia: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC, 2011.

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