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The Health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress : a report of the Surgeon General
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The Health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress : a report of the Surgeon General
  • Alternative Title:
    Health consequences of smoking—50 years of progress
  • Description:
    1. Introduction, summary, and conclusions -- 2. Fifty years of change—1964-2014 -- 3. Producing the Surgeon General’s report from 1964-2014: process and purpose -- 4. Advances in knowledge of the health consequences of smoking: from 1964-2014 -- 5. Nicotine -- 6. Cancer -- 7. Respiratory diseases -- 8. Cardiovascular diseases -- 9. Reproductive outcomes -- 10. Other specific outcomes -- 11. General morbidity and all-cause mortality -- 12. Smoking-attributable morbidity, mortality, and economic costs -- 13. Patterns of tobacco use among U.S. youth, young adults, and adults -- 14. Current status of tobacco control -- 15. The Changing landscape of tobacco control--current status and future directions -- 16. A vision for ending the epidemic: toward a society free of tobacco-caused death and disease -- List of abbreviations -- List of tables and figures -- List of gene tables -- Index.

    This report is divided into three sections. Section 1 “Historical perspective, overview, and conclusions” pro- vides an overall summary of the report and its conclusions. It also provides a summary of the history of this series of reports, moving from their origins in 1964 to the present, contrasting what we knew in 1964 with what we know now in 2014. Section 2 “The Health Consequences of Active and Passive Smoking: The Evidence in 2014” provides a direct link to the 1964 report, which addressed the health effects of active smoking only. The first chapter in this section gives a 50-year perspective on the identification of the health consequences of active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke. The other chapters in this section provide updates on critical topics and on topics for which the evidence has advanced, since the previous reviews in the 2004 and 2006 Surgeon General’s reports, The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General and The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General, including a brief review of the state of the evidence. Understanding of mechanisms, as laid out in the 2010 report, How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease: The Biology and Behavioral Basis for Smoking-Attributable Disease, is also (USDHHS 2010b). Active smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke are covered in the same chapters. Section 3 “Tracking and Ending the Epidemic” includes a descriptive chapter on the patterns of smoking, a chapter on the impact of the tobacco control environment on smoking since 1964, and additional chapters pro- viding estimates of premature deaths that are avoidable. The final chapter “A Vision for the Ending the Tobacco Epidemic” outlines broad strategies and potential courses of action for tobacco control in the future.

    Each section within the chapters on the health consequences of smoking (Chapters 6 – 11) is accompanied by evidence tables detailing the studies that were used to evaluate the evidence to assess causality. A supplement to this report is provided that contains these tables. The tables included in the supplement are indicated with an “S” where they are called out in the text.

    Suggested Citation: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Smoking: 50 Years of Progress. A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014.

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