Outbreak of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Chinese High School, 2009–2010
Published Date:Jun 15 2013
Source:J Epidemiol. 2013; 23(4):307-312.
In February 2009, a high school student was diagnosed with sputum-smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). One year later, 2 other students in the same grade developed sputum-smear positive TB.
We used tuberculin skin testing (TST), chest radiography, sputum smear, and symptomatology for case identification. We defined latent TB infection (LTBI) as a TST induration of 15 mm or larger, probable TB as a chest radiograph indicative of TB plus productive cough/hemoptysis for at least 2 weeks or TST induration of 15 mm or larger, and confirmed TB as 2 or more positive sputum smears or 1 positive sputum smear plus a chest radiograph indicative of TB.
Of students in the same grade as the primary case-student, 26% (122/476) had LTBI and 4.8% (23/476) had probable/confirmed TB. Of teachers, 43% (18/42) had LTBI and none had probable/confirmed TB. Sharing a classroom with the primary case-student increased risk for LTBI (rate ratio = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.9–3.4) and probable/confirmed TB (rate ratio = 17, 95% CI: 7.8–39). Of students with LTBI in February 2009 who refused prophylaxis, 50% (11/22) had probable/confirmed TB in April 2010.
This TB outbreak was likely started by delayed diagnosis of TB in the case-student and was facilitated by lack of post-exposure chemoprophylaxis. Post-exposure prophylaxis is strongly recommended for all TST-positive students.
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