Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence Inequality Trends Among US Adults, 2008–2021
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Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence Inequality Trends Among US Adults, 2008–2021

Public Access Version Available on: December 01, 2024, 12:00 AM
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  • Alternative Title:
    Am J Prev Med
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    This study examined national trends in age, sex, racial and ethnic, and socioeconomic inequalities for diagnosed diabetes prevalence and incidence among US adults from 2008–2021.


    Adults (≥18 years) were from the National Health Interview Survey (2008–2021). The annual between-group variance (BGV) for sex, race, and ethnicity, and the slope index of inequality (SII) for age, education, and poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) along with the average annual percent change (AAPC) were estimated in 2023 to assess trends in inequalities over time in diabetes prevalence and incidence. For BGV and SII, a value of 0 represents no inequality while a value further from 0 represents greater inequality.


    On average over time, PIR inequalities in diabetes prevalence worsened (SII: −8.24 in 2008 and −9.80 in 2021; AAPC for SII: −1.90%, p=0.003) while inequalities in incidence for age (SII: 17.60 in 2008 and 8.85 in 2021; AAPC for SII: −6.47%, p<0.001), sex (BGV: 0.09 in 2008, 2.05 in 2009, 1.24 in 2010, and 0.27 in 2021; AAPC for BGV: −12.34%, p=0.002), racial and ethnic (BGV: 4.80 in 2008 and 2.17 in 2021; AAPC for BGV: −10.59%, p=0.010), and education (SII: −9.89 in 2008 and −2.20 in 2021; AAPC for SII: 8.27%, p=0.001) groups improved.


    From 2008–2021, age, sex, racial and ethnic, and education inequalities in the incidence of diagnosed diabetes improved but persisted. Income-related diabetes prevalence inequalities worsened over time. To close these gaps, future research could focus on identifying factors driving these trends including the contribution of morbidity and mortality.

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