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National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System for Enteric Bacteria (NARMS); human isolates final report, 2008
  • Published Date:
Filetype[PDF - 1.60 MB]

  • Corporate Authors:
    National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System--Enteric Bacteria (U.S.) ; National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases. ;
  • Document Type:
  • Description:
    List of tables -- List of figures -- List of boxes -- List of abbreviations and acronyms -- NARMS working group -- What is new in the NARMS report for 2008 -- Introduction -- WHO categorization of antimicrobial agents -- Summary of NARMS 2008 surveillance data -- Surveillance and laboratory testing methods -- Results -- References -- NARMS publications in 2008 -- Appendix A. Summary of Escherichia coli resistance surveillance pilot study, 2008

    The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) for Enteric Bacteria is a collaboration among the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine (FDA-CVM), and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The primary purpose of NARMS at CDC is to monitor antimicrobial resistance among foodborne enteric bacteria isolated from humans. Other components of the interagency NARMS program include surveillance for resistance in enteric bacterial pathogens isolated from foods, conducted by the FDA-CVM (http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/SafetyHealth/AntimicrobialResistance/NationalAntimicrobialResistanceMonitoringSystem/default.htm), and resistance in enteric pathogens isolated from animals, conducted by the USDA Agricultural Research Service (http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=66-12-05-08). Many NARMS activities are conducted within the framework of CDC's Emerging Infections Program (EIP), Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity (ELC) Program, and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet). In addition to surveillance of resistance in enteric pathogens, the NARMS program at CDC also includes public health research into the mechanisms of resistance, education efforts to promote prudent use of antimicrobial agents, and studies of resistance in commensal organisms. Before NARMS was established, CDC monitored antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter through periodic surveys of isolates from a panel of sentinel counties. NARMS at CDC began in 1996 with prospective monitoring of antimicrobial resistance among clinical non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157 isolates in 14 sites. In 1997, testing of clinical Campylobacter isolates was initiated in the five sites participating in FoodNet. Testing of clinical Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and Shigella isolates was added in 1999. Since 2003, all 50 states have been forwarding a representative sample of non-typhoidal Salmonella, Salmonella ser. Typhi, Shigella, and E. coli O157 isolates to NARMS for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and 10 FoodNet states have been participating in Campylobacter surveillance. This annual report includes CDC's surveillance data for 2008 for non-typhoidal Salmonella, typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter and E. coli O157 isolates. Data for earlier years are presented in tables and graphs when appropriate. Antimicrobial classes defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) are used in data presentation and analysis. CLSI classes constitute major classifications of antimicrobial agents, e.g., aminoglycosides and cephems. This report also includes the World Health Organization's categorization of antimicrobials of critical importance to human medicine. The table includes only antimicrobials that are tested in NARMS.

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