Evidence for the Circulation and Inter-Hemispheric Movement of the H14 Subtype Influenza A Virus
Published Date:Mar 28 2013
Source:PLoS One. 2013; 8(3).
Keywords:Amino Acid Sequence
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus
Influenza A Virus
Influenza In Birds
Molecular Sequence Data
Description:Three H14 influenza A virus (IAV) isolates recovered in 2010 during routine virus surveillance along the Mississippi Migratory Bird Flyway in Wisconsin, U.S.A. raised questions about the natural history of these rare viruses. These were the first H14 IAV isolates recovered in the Western Hemisphere and the only H14 IAV isolates recovered since the original four isolates in 1982 in Asia. Full length genomic sequencing of the 2010 H14 isolates demonstrated the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the 1982 and 2010 H14 isolates showed 89.6% nucleotide and 95.6% amino acid similarity and phylogenetic analysis of these viruses placed them with strong support within the H14 subtype lineage. The level of genomic divergence observed between the 1982 and 2010 viruses provides evidence that the H14 HA segment was circulating undetected in hosts and was not maintained in environmental stasis. Further, the evolutionary relationship observed between 1982 H14 and the closely related H4 subtype HA segments were similar to contemporary comparisons suggesting limited adaptive divergence between these sister subtypes. The nonstructural (NS) segment of one 2010 isolate was placed in a NS clade isolated infrequently over the last several decades that includes the NS segment from a previously reported 1982 H14 isolate indicating the existence of an unidentified pool of genomic diversity. An additional neuraminidase reassortment event indicated a recent inter-hemispheric gene flow from Asia into the center of North America. These results demonstrate temporal and spatial gaps in the understanding of IAV natural history. Additionally, the reassortment history of these viruses raises concern for the inter-continental spread of IAVs and the efficacy of current IAV surveillance efforts in detecting genomic diversity of viruses circulating in wild birds.
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