The 2021 Physician Pain Management Questionnaire Pilot Study
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      Objectives: The study was conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics and was designed to test the feasibility of a large, nationally representative survey assessing physician awareness and use of established guidelines for prescribing opioids to manage pain.

      Methods: The PPMQ was a cross-sectional, paper-based, mail-only survey. A total of 1,000 surveys were mailed to physicians between June 2021 and February 2022. The PPMQ sampling frame and sample were constructed from the National Provider Identification datafile, provided by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The sample consisted of nonfederally employed allopathic and osteopathic physicians, legally providing care to patients in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, in primarily ambulatory specialties. As this was a pilot study and conducted for methodological purposes, no weights were developed, and the results reported here are not nationally representative.

      Results: Of the 1,000 surveys that were mailed, 193 were completed. Of the 193 physician respondents, 149 were considered eligible. The unweighted completion rate for eligible respondents was 96.6%. Considering nonresponse, the overall unweighted response rate for PPMQ was 16.1%. No significant differences in nonresponse bias were found between respondents and nonrespondents with respect to physician sex, physician type (allopathic or osteopathic), U.S. region of practice, and specialty. Item nonresponse rates for questions in PPMQ were low, ranging from 0.0% to 4.4%.

      Suggested citation: Gidali DM, Ward BW. The 2021 Physician Pain Management Questionnaire pilot study. Vital Health Stat Series 2(204). 2023. DOI:

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