Trends and Correlates of Cocaine Use among Adults in the United States, 2006–2019
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Trends and Correlates of Cocaine Use among Adults in the United States, 2006–2019

Filetype[PDF-451.30 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      Addict Behav
    • Description:

      Cocaine is the most commonly reported illicit stimulant used in the U.S., yet limited research has examined recent changes in cocaine use patterns and co-occurring substance use and mental health characteristics among adults using cocaine.


      Self-report data from adults (age 18 years or older) participating in the 2006 to 2019 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were used to estimate trends in prevalence of past-year cocaine use by demographic characteristics, cocaine use disorder, cocaine injection, frequency of use. For 2018–2019, prevalence of co-occurring past-year use of other illicit and prescription substances and mental health characteristics were estimated. Multivariable logistic regression examined demographic, substance use, and mental health characteristics associated with past-year cocaine use in 2018–2019.


      The annual average estimated prevalence of past-year cocaine use among adults was highest in 2006–2007 (2.51%), declined to 1.72% in 2010–2011, and then increased to 2.14% in 2018–2019. The annual average estimated prevalence of past-year cocaine use disorder was highest in 2006–2007 (0.71%) and declined to 0.37% in 2018–2019. Characteristics associated with higher adjusted odds of past-year cocaine use included: males; ages 18–49; Hispanic ethnicity; income <$20,000; large or small metro counties; use of other substances (nicotine, alcohol, marijuana, sedative/tranquilizers, prescription opioids, prescription stimulants, heroin, and methamphetamine); and serious psychological distress and suicidal ideation or attempt.


      Additional efforts to support prevention and response capacity in communities, expand linkages to care and retention for substance use and mental health, and enhance collaborations between public health and public safety are needed.

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