Risk Assessment for o-Toluidine and Bladder Cancer Incidence
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Risk Assessment for o-Toluidine and Bladder Cancer Incidence

Filetype[PDF-1.20 MB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      Am J Ind Med
    • Description:

      Elevated bladder cancer incidence has been reported in a cohort of 1,875 workers manufacturing chemicals used in the rubber industry and employed any time during 1946–2006. ortho-Toluidine (OT), an aromatic amine, was the prime suspect agent. Using the available environmental data and process characterization, previous investigators assigned ranks to volatile chemical air concentrations across time in departments and jobs, reflecting probabilities of exposure and use of personal protective equipment for airborne and dermal exposures. Aniline, another aromatic amine, was present at comparable concentrations and is known to be an animal carcinogen but produced lower levels in post-shift urine and of hemoglobin adducts than OT in a group of workers.


      A quantitative risk assessment was performed based on this same population. In this work, cumulative OT exposures were estimated a) based on previously assigned ranks of exposure intensity and reported actual exposures in jobs with the highest assigned rank, and b) directly from the historical environmental sampling for OT. Models of bladder cancer incidence were evaluated taking into account possible healthy worker survivor effects.


      Under various assumptions regarding workforce turnover, the excess lifetime risk of bladder cancer from OT exposure at 1 ppb was estimated to be in the range 1–7 per thousand.


      The current ACGIH TLV and OSHA standards for OT are 2 ppm and 5 ppm, respectively, one thousand-fold higher than the exposure estimated here for 1–7 per thousand excess lifetime risk.

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