Urban-Rural Disparities in Vaccination Service Use Among Low-Income Adolescents
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Urban-Rural Disparities in Vaccination Service Use Among Low-Income Adolescents

Filetype[PDF-241.75 KB]

  • English

  • Details:

    • Alternative Title:
      J Adolesc Health
    • Description:

      To access urban-rural disparities in vaccination service use among Medicaid-enrolled adolescents and examine its association with residence county characteristics.

      Study design:

      We used the 2016 Medicaid T-MSIS Analytic File to estimate adolescents’ use of vaccination services, defined as the proportion of adolescents aged 11–18 years with ≥ 1 vaccination visit in a county. We used linear regression and the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method to examine the association between county characteristics and urban-rural disparities in vaccination service use.


      The analysis included 2,473 counties located in 38 states. The mean proportion of adolescents making ≥ 1 vaccination visit at the county level was low (36.09%) and was lower in rural than in urban counties (31.99% vs. 36.85%, p < .01). The number of primary care physicians (PCPs) was positively associated with vaccination service use in rural counties; in urban counties, % of households without a vehicle was negatively associated with vaccination service use. The decomposition results showed that 66.78% (3.24 percentage points) of the urban-rural disparities in vaccination service use could be attributed to urban-rural differences in the county characteristics included in the study. Characteristics measuring access to care (number of PCPs), social and economic factors (% adults with at least a bachelor’s degree and % children in poverty), quality of care (influenza vaccination rates and preventable hospital stays), and demographics (% non-Hispanic black, % Hispanic, and % females) played a role in urban-rural disparities.


      Differences in county characteristics could partly explain the observed urban-rural disparities in vaccination service use among low-income adolescents.

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