Responding to new forms of antibiotic resistance
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      ealthcare facilities, local and state health departments, and CDC all play critical roles in preventing the emergence and spread of new forms of antibiotic resistance. The rapid spread of bacteria with novel resistance mechanisms or highly resistant susceptibility profiles, like Enterobacteriaceae producing the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), demonstrates what happens when limited or no action is taken. Through timely coordinated action, the spread of

      highly resistant organisms can be constrained. Although resistant organisms may be first identified at a single facility, preventing further spread of the organism is the responsibility of all the stakeholders in a region. It is critical to understand that everyone has a role and responsibility to act since antimicrobial resistance is a regional problem and limiting its spread requires a coordinated response that benefits all the interconnected facilities in a region.

      The organisms that are considered prevention priorities might vary from region to region, but will need to include bacteria with an uncommon resistance profile or mechanism that is either epidemiologically (e.g., high potential for epidemic spread) or clinically important (e.g., severely limits treatment options). Examples might include vancomycin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) and carbapenemase-producing gram-negative bacilli (e.g., CRE). This document summarizes the roles that each stakeholder should take when these organisms are identified in a region or community of connected healthcare facilities.


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