Insights into the evolution and dispersion of pyrethroid resistance among sylvatic Andean Triatoma infestans from Bolivia
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Insights into the evolution and dispersion of pyrethroid resistance among sylvatic Andean Triatoma infestans from Bolivia

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  • English

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    • Alternative Title:
      Infect Genet Evol
    • Description:
      Sylvatic populations of Triatoma infestans represent a challenge to Chagas disease control as they are not targeted by vector control activities and may play a key role in post-spraying house re-infestation. Understanding sylvatic foci distribution and gene flow between sylvatic and domestic populations is crucial to optimize vector control interventions and elucidate the development and spread of insecticide resistance. Herein, the genetic profiles of five Andean T. infestans populations from Bolivia with distinct insecticide susceptibility profiles were compared. Multilocus genotypes based on eight microsatellites and the DNA sequence of a fragment of the cytochrome B (cytB) gene were obtained for 92 individuals. CytB haplotypes were analyzed with previously reported Bolivian T. infestans haplotypes to evaluate putative historical gene flow among populations. Each specimen was also screened for two nucleotide mutations in the sodium channel gene (kdr), related to pyrethroid resistance (L1014 and L9251). Significant genetic differentiation was observed among all populations, although individuals of admixed origin were detected in four of them. Notably, the genetic profiles of adjacent domestic and sylvatic populations of Mataral, characterized by higher levels of insecticide resistance, support their common ancestry. Only one sylvatic individual from Mataral carried the kdr mutation L1014, suggesting that this mechanism is unlikely to cause the altered insecticide susceptibility observed in these populations. However, as the resistance mutation is present in the area, it has the potential to be selected under insecticidal pressure. Genetic comparisons of these populations suggest that insecticide resistance is likely conferred by ancient trait(s) in T. infestans sylvatic populations, which are capable of invading domiciles. These results emphasize the need for stronger entomological surveillance in the region, including early detection of house invasion, particularly post-spraying, monitoring for resistance to pyrethroids and the design of integrative control actions that consider sylvatic foci around domestic settings and their dispersion dynamics.
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