Structural uses and placement techniques for lightweight concrete in underground mining
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Structural uses and placement techniques for lightweight concrete in underground mining

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      "The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted experiments on the use of lightweight concrete in the density range of 100 lb/ft3 for liners in underground mines. Three test sections were completed: a monolithic, portal-type structure with integral walls and arch constructed aboveground; an underground test section constructed in a mine drift using plywood forms; and a second section constructed in a drift using an air-supported formwork. The lightweight concrete in the two underground test sections was placed using piston pumps and a slickline. Fiber reinforcement was added to the concrete in the mine sections without any apparent problems with either pumping or placement of the concrete. In another experiment, the Bureau and Hecla Mining Company, Mullan, Idaho, used lightweight concrete in the density range of 25 lb/ft3 to replace timber blocking in a raise preparation structure. Other experiments are described in which low-density, lightweight concrete blocks were produced for mine ventilation doors, stoppings, and barricades. Other mine uses reviewed include pillars and collapsing beams. An advantage of low-density concrete is that it will display up to 50 pct deformation at a constant yield stress. These innovative concepts in deformable concrete lining systems will aid mine operators by decreasing capital and maintenance costs, increasing the available space in underground haulageways, and providing productivity gains and improved resource recovery in the soft, caving, squeezing, or bursting ground conditions often found in deep mines." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10007308
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