Refractories for Dry Ash Coal Gasifiers
Description:This report summarizes the findings of a 9-yr research program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and conducted by the Bureau of Mines, to evaluate refractory liner materials for coal gasifier reactors. Commercially available refractories were exposed to coal gasifier reactor environments, reproduced in the laboratory with a high-temperature, high-pressure test facility, followed by extensive postexposure evaluation. Thirty-six castable or gunnable refractories and cements and 24 refractory brick were evaluated. The behavior of castable refractories reinforced with stainless steel fibers was also examined. Gas environments that were evaluated included steam, H2, CO2, CO, and typical high-and low-Btu gas mixtures. Exposure pressures ranged from 100 to 1,000 psig, temperatures from 5000 to 1,1000 C, for periods from 50 h to 2,000 h. In some exposures, sodium and/or potassium hydroxide were introduced in order to simulate a high-alkali environment. It was found that intermediate-and low-alumina refractories produced from domestically available raw materials, rather than high-alumina refractories produced from imported raw materials, gave the best service as liner materials and that alkali attack was probably not a serious problem with most refractories. Based on the results of this program, good choices of refractory liner materials for gasifier reactors can be made.
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