Preliminary Evaluation of the Relationship of Bit Wear to Cutting Distance, Forces, and Dust Using Selected Commercial and Experimental Coal-and Rock-Cutting Tools
Description:This report describes the initial results of long-range research on bit life conducted by the Bureau of Mines. Three commercial bit designs -a round-nose radial, 60° conical, and 90° conical with tungsten carbide (WC) inserts -and five experimental bits were tested. Four of the experimental bits were radial designs using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) inserts. The fifth was a 90° conical with an oversize WC insert. Bits were worn on a high-silica sandstone typical of coal mine roofs. The bits were mounted on a 34-in-diam drum section that provided a bit speed of 565 ft/min. Cutting forces were measured on a modified vertical slotter using a three-axis force dynamometer and recorded on an FM magnetic tape recorder. Changes in cutting forces, bit weight, and airborne dust due to gradual abrasive wear and catastrophic insert failure are presented. Tabulated and graphed data, photographs of the progression of bit wear, and selected qualitative visual and auditory observations of the bits taken throughout the experiment are found in the appendixes. The results show that bit life ranged from approximately 16,000 ft for the WC round-nose radial bit to over 125,000 ft for a PDC round-nose radial. Performance, in terms of bit life, cutting forces, wear rate, frictional sparking, machine vibration, and noise was in general best with the PDC bits, followed by the rotating WC bits, with the nonrotating WC bits (round-nose radial and locked 60° conical) being the worst. The results show variations in the included tip angles of new conical bits have an insignificant influence on bit performance when the effects are averaged over the life of the bit. In addition, new bits were generally found to entrain more primary respirable dust for a given cutting distance than worn-out bits. It is hypothesized that this is due to the difference in frictional behavior between new and worn bits. The results from these tests are being used in the Bureau's cutting system model (CSM).
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