Low-Chromium Heat-Resisting Ferritic Alloys Strengthened by the Chi Phase
Description:The Bureau of Mines is conducting research on substitutes for chromium-containing alloys in order to conserve imported critical and strategic materials. Part of this research concentrates on finding low-chromium substitutes for heat-resisting stainless steels for the temperature range 600° to 800° C. Ferritic alloys are emphasized that have oxidation resistance provided by chromium contents as low as 10 pct and stress rupture strength provided by the precipitation of the chi(X)-phase intermetallic compound, (Fe36Cr12 (Mo, Ti)10). Initially, research was concentrated on selecting an alloy composition having a minimum chromium content with strengthening provided by the X-phase. An Fe-(10-12 pct)Cr-6 pct Mo-(1.5-2.0 pct)Ti alloy was selected. After the alloy selection, the tensile, stress rupture, and oxidation properties were determined. Stress rupture properties were found to be similar to those of 304 stainless steel. However, the alloys possessed brittleness during both stress rupture and tensile testing, possibly as a result of too high a content of molybdenum and titanium. Higher than expected oxidation rates were found that may be caused by the high molybdenum content.
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