Factors affecting the dissolution of gypsum-bonded roof bolts
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Factors affecting the dissolution of gypsum-bonded roof bolts
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    "In support of its objective to improve mine safety, the Bureau of Mines has searched for better materials and systems to anchor roof bolts. This report describes a study on the effects of mine waters upon accelerated gypsum, one of the materials under consideration. The accelerated gypsum dissolved at an appreciable rate relative to an assumed 10-yr life span of a roof bolt. Surface orientation, initial ion concentration of a dissolving solution, and flow rate of the solution had substantial effects on the dissolution rate. Factors such as water-cement ratio, accelerator content, wax capsule additions to the gypsum in cartridge-installed bolts, surface area, temperature, and curing duration had little effect. In an actual roof-bolt environment, dissolution will occur in static solutions to the solubility limit of gypsum ( 2g/l) and cease, resulting in minimal damage; but in flows of unsaturated solution as slow as 1 l per month, a loss of up to 10 pct will occur in 2 yr. Since miners cannot readily measure the flow or ion concentration of static- appearing water at every roof-bolt site, all such water must be assumed to be pure and flowing. It is recommended that gypsum- bonded roof bolts be confined to dry roofs only." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10003158
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