Factors Affecting the Dissolution of Gypsum-Bonded Roof Bolts
Description:In support of its objective to improve mine safety, the Bureau of Mines has searched for better materials and systems to anchor roof bolts. TIlis report describes a study on the effects of mine waters upon accelerated gypsum, one of the materials under consideration. The accelerated gypsuw dissolved at an appreciable rate relative to an assumed 10-yr life span of a roof bolt. Surface orientation, initial ion concentration of a dissolving solution, and flow rate of the solu-tion had substantial effects on the dissolution rate. Factors such as water-cement ratio, accelerator content, wax capsule additions to the gypsum in cartridge-installed bolts, surface area, temperature, and curing duration had little effect. In an actual roof-bolt environment, dissolution will occur in static solutions to the solubility limit of gypsum (~2 giL) and cease, result-ing in minimal damage; but in flows of unsaturated solution as slow as 1 L per month, a loss of up to 10 pct will occur in 2 yr. Since miners cannot readily measure the flow or ion concentration of static-appearing water at every roof-bolt site, all such water must be assumed to be pure and flowing. It is recommended that gypsum-bonded roof bolts be confined to dry roofs only.
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