Coal mine entry intersection behavior study
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      "This U.S. Bureau of Mines report describes a rock mechanics instrumentation program conducted in a shallow underground coal mine in central Illinois. This research program was designed to provide a basic understanding of the structural behavior of entry intersections. A wide variety of instruments and measurement techniques including hydraulic borehole pressure cells, multiple- point borehole extensometers, roof bolt compression pads, and overcoring were employed to monitor roof stresses, pillar loading, strata movement, floor heave, and bolt loading before, during, and after intersection development. A summary of intersection design theories, failure modes, and support techniques is included, and instrumentation installation procedures and analysis methods are presented. The study identified two critical parameters that affect intersection stability: in situ horizontal stresses and geological discontinuities. Important design parameters for improving intersection stability are roof span and intersection geometry." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSHTIC no. 10008549
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