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Communication Systems - 2.1 Introduction; Underground Mine Communications, Control And Monitoring
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    Any communication system requires at least three elements in order to function: a transmitting device, a receiving device, and a transmission line or propagation medium. Even the device children use, tin cans connected with string, consists or these three elements. One speaks into one can (transmitter), which vibrates at the same frequencies as the voice. The string (transmission path) picks up the vibrations of the can and carries them along its entire length. The other can (receiver) detects the vibration and reproduces the original sounds to a lesser extent depending on distance, tightness of string, type of string, etc. All communication systems depend on these three elements: transmitter, transmission path, and receiver. Communication systems can be divided into three fundamental categories: wired phone systems, radio systems, and carrier current systems. Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4, respectively, describe these systems and explain the basic principles of how each works. Hybrid systems are those systems that use various combinations of the three basic communication methods. Hybrid systems are described in section 2.5. There are some other methods of signaling (stench warning, bell signaling, etc.) that can be used in underground mines to transmit or convey information. These systems, although they cannot be considered true communication systems since they do not provide voice or even two-way communication, are briefly described in section 2.6. 2.2 Wired Phone Systems Wired phone systems are all those that depend on a wire connection between phones with the wire carrying the voice signals. Figure 2-1 is a diagram of two typical wired phone systems.The top panel shows a simple single pair party line system. In this system each phone is connected to a common pair of wires, and a person speaking into one phone will be heard at all the other phones on the line. The bottom panel shows a multipair private line phone system. In this type of system, each phone is connected by its own individual pair of wires to a central switch or telephone exchange. To establish a call between two phones in this system, the lines between the two phones must be connected (switched together) within the telephone exchange. In early exchanges, the connections were made manually by an operator. These exchanges are called Private Branch Exchanges (PBX's). Today, equipment within the exchange can automatically connect each phone to any other phone in the system. These exchanges are called Private Automatic Branch Exchanges (PABX's). There are many different types of automatic exchanges. Some utilize switches to physically make each connection according to the number dialed. Other, more advanced exchanges are completely solid state and may even be computer controlled. [ ]

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