Part Eight - Earth Model - I. Introduction; Survey Of Electromagnetic And Seismic Noise Related To Mine Rescue Communications - Volume II
Description:The question of earth models has repeatedly arisen in our work. An accurate representation of the seismic properties is required for three reasons: 1.To be able to determine from a set of received arrival times, the location of a seismic source in the earth, and secondly the degree of accuracy required in the model used for calculating source location from the set of arrival time differences. 2. To be able to determine the expected arrival times at an array of geophones produced in response to a hypothetical source in the earth. 3. To be able to estimate received signal strengths more accurately. The work reported here on earth models is based on information from sever- al consultants and from others who expressed an interest in the problem and supplied information to us. II. COAL MINE GEOLOGY On one of our earlier assignments for the Bureau of Mines, Earth Science Research Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts prepared for us a short description of the lithology to be expected at coal mine sites. This description follows, together with the ranges of compressional seismic velocities (Figure I*) associated with typical materials comprising the layered structure of a coal mine area. Coal is primarily associated with fresh water sediments including sandstones, shales, and clays, and occasionally may be metamorphased to varying degrees. In the Appalachian Basin the coal beds occur within cyclical sequences of non-marine shales, sands tones, conglomerates, limes tones, and clays. The beds range in thickness from a few inches to 60 feet, averaging between 2 feet and 10 feet. They have generally broad areal extent, occasionally up to 5,000 square miles, and have an overall tabular or lens-like shape. Within a particular lens, local changes in thickness are normal.
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