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Part Two - Detection Range And Arrival Time Estimates - I. Summary; Survey Of Electromagnetic And Seismic Noise Related To Mine Rescue Communications - Volume II
  • Published Date:
    1/1/1974
Filetype[PDF - 893.65 KB]


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    Estimates are given for the distance from a seismometer at which a miner can probably be detected. The procedure in making these estimates was to first establish the natural noise levels at the output of a surface seismometer for the 25 to 100 Hz frequency passband. The noise levels give the range of values which may be expected in areas with no man-made noise. For each noise level, we give the detection threshold which, when exceeded, indicates that a signal has been received. Based on the signals recorded by Westinghouse, curves are given which show the peak signal amplitude as a function of source- to-receiver distance (slant range). Curves are given for the Westinghouse seismic thumper, a 50-pound timber, and a sledge. For a given type of source, the receive signal strength depends more strongly on slant range than on any other factor. However, there is approximately a five-to-one scatter in the amplitudes. Thus, further study of factors affecting the signal amplitude might allow better estimates to be made for any particular geological setting. Combining the signal amplitude with the detection thresholds for the different noise conditions gives the distances at which a miner should be detected. These are given in Table l* below. [ ] The text also gives the increase in detection ranges which should occur if steps are taken to increase S/N by 10 dB. We feel that 10 dB is a conservative estimate of the improvement possible. During an actual rescue operation, the seismic crew and system should be capable of making on-site estimates of their detection capability, based on measurements of the site noise, and upon the best available estimates of the

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