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State of knowledge of analytical techniques for thru-the-earth electromagnetic wave problems relevant to mine rescue
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    It is the purpose of this paper to review theoretical model concepts in through- the -earth transmission of electromagnetic waves. While the subject is very broad in its defined scope, we will be conscious of the specific applications to mine rescue and emergency telecommunications in coal mine environments. The plan of the paper is to outline previous theoretical efforts without attempting to attach names or organizations to the specific developments. However, we include a guide to the literature as an appendix. Without pretending to be entirely impartial we include a critique of the limitations of the available analytical models. As I see it the central problem is to calculate the steady state mutual impedance of a four-terminal network that is the black box characterizing the through-the-earth path. Problems of secondary importance include the determination of the input impedances of the two pairs of terminals and the associated transient responses. 
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