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Host Decoy Trap (HDT) with cattle odour is highly effective for collection of exophagic malaria vectors
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  • Alternative Title:
    Parasit Vectors
  • Description:
    Background As currently implemented, malaria vector surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa targets endophagic and endophilic mosquitoes, leaving exophagic (outdoor blood-feeding) mosquitoes underrepresented. We evaluated the recently developed host decoy trap (HDT) and compared it to the gold standard, human landing catch (HLC), in a 3 × 3 Latin square study design outdoors in western Kenya. HLCs are considered to represent the natural range of Anopheles biting-behaviour compared to other sampling tools, and therefore, in principle, provide the most reliable profile of the biting population transmitting malaria. The HDT incorporates the main host stimuli that attract blood-meal seeking mosquitoes and can be baited with the odours of live hosts. Results Numbers and species diversity of trapped mosquitoes varied significantly between HLCs and HDTs baited with human (HDT-H) or cattle (HDT-C) odour, revealing important differences in behaviour of Anopheles species. In the main study in Kisian, the HDT-C collected a nightly mean of 43.2 (95% CI: 26.7–69.8) Anopheles, compared to 5.8 (95% CI: 4.1–8.2) in HLC, while HDT-H collected 0.97 (95% CI: 0.4–2.1), significantly fewer than the HLC. Significantly higher proportions of An. arabiensis were caught in HDT-Cs (0.94 ± 0.01; SE) and HDT-Hs (0.76 ± 0.09; SE) than in HLCs (0.45 ± 0.05; SE) per trapping night. The proportion of An. gambiae (s.s.) was highest in HLC (0.55 ± 0.05; SE) followed by HDT-H (0.20 ± 0.09; SE) and least in HDT-C (0.06 ± 0.01; SE). An unbaited HDT placed beside locales where cattle are usually corralled overnight caught mostly An. arabiensis with proportions of 0.97 ± 0.02 and 0.80 ± 0.2 relative to the total anopheline catch in the presence and absence of cattle, respectively. A mean of 10.4 (95% CI: 2.0–55.0) Anopheles/night were trapped near cattle, compared to 0.4 (95% CI: 0.1–1.7) in unbaited HDT away from hosts. Conclusions The capability of HDTs to combine host odours, heat and visual stimuli to simulate a host provides the basis of a system to sample human- and cattle-biting mosquitoes. HDT-C is particularly effective for collecting An. arabiensis outdoors. The HDT offers the prospect of a system to monitor and potentially control An. arabiensis and other outdoor-biting mosquitoes more effectively.
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