Results of a confirmatory mapping tool for Lymphatic filariasis endemicity classification in areas where transmission was uncertain in Ethiopia
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Results of a confirmatory mapping tool for Lymphatic filariasis endemicity classification in areas where transmission was uncertain in Ethiopia
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Results of a confirmatory mapping tool for Lymphatic filariasis endemicity classification in areas where transmission was uncertain in Ethiopia
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  • Alternative Title:
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis
  • Description:
    Background The goal of the global lymphatic filariasis (LF) program is to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by the year 2020. The WHO mapping protocol that is used to identify endemic areas in need of mass drug administration (MDA) uses convenience-based sampling. This rapid mapping has allowed the global program to dramatically scale up treatment, but as the program approaches its elimination goal, it is important to ensure that all endemic areas have been identified and have received MDA. In low transmission settings, the WHO mapping protocol for LF mapping has several limitations. To correctly identify the LF endemicity of woredas, a new confirmatory mapping tool was developed to test older school children for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in settings where it is uncertain. Ethiopia is the first country to implement this new tool. In this paper, we present the Ethiopian experience of implementing the new confirmatory mapping tool and discuss the implications of the results for the LF program in Ethiopia and globally. Methods Confirmatory LF mapping was conducted in 1,191 schools in 45 woredas, the implementation unit in Ethiopia, in the regions of Tigray, Amhara, Oromia, SNNP, Afar and Harari, where the results of previous mapping for LF using the current WHO protocol indicated that LF endemicity was uncertain. Within each woreda schools were selected using either cluster or systematic sampling. From selected schools, a total of 18,254 children were tested for circulating filarial antigen (CFA) using the immuno-chromatographic test (ICT). Results Of the 18,254 children in 45 woredas who participated in the survey, 28 (0.16%) in 9 woredas tested CFA positive. According to the confirmatory mapping threshold, which is ≥2% CFA in children 9–14 years of age, only 3 woredas out of the total 45 had more CFA positive results than the threshold and thus were confirmed to be endemic; the remaining 42 woredas were declared non-endemic. These results drastically decreased the estimated total population living in LF-endemic woredas in Ethiopia and in need of MDA by 49.1%, from 11,580,010 to 5,893,309. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the new confirmatory mapping tool for LF can benefit national LF programs by generating information that not only can confirm where LF is endemic, but also can save time and resources by preventing MDA where there is no evidence of ongoing LF transmission.
  • Pubmed ID:
    29579038
  • Pubmed Central ID:
    PMC5886699
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