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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Funded Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing, Positivity, and Service Delivery among Newly Diagnosed Women in 61 Health Department Jurisdictions, United States, 2014
  • Published Date:
    2016 Sep-Oct
  • Source:
    Womens Health Issues. 26(5):496-503.
Filetype[PDF-100.43 KB]

  • Alternative Title:
    Womens Health Issues
  • Description:
    Background More than 1.2 million persons are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States; at the end of 2011, 23% of them were women. Minority women are disproportionately affected by HIV, and new infections are higher among older women. HIV testing and service delivery among women funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is examined. Methods Data were submitted by 61 health department jurisdictions. HIV testing, HIV-positive tests, new HIV diagnoses among women, and linkage and referral services among newly diagnosed women are described. Differences across demographic characteristics for HIV diagnoses, linkage, and referral services were assessed. Diagnoses were identified as new when women who tested HIV positive were not found to be reported previously in the jurisdiction's HIV surveillance system; when jurisdictions could not verify prior test results in their surveillance systems, new diagnoses were identified by self-report. Results Of CDC-funded testing events in 2014, 1,484,902 (48.7%) were among women, and they accounted for 19.5% of all HIV-positive testing events. Among women tested, 0.4% were HIV positive, and 0.1% had new HIV diagnoses. Women aged 40 and older and Black women were more likely to test HIV positive (0.7% and 0.5%, respectively). Among newly diagnosed women, 62.8% were linked within any timeframe, 57.1% were linked within 90 days, 74.1% were referred to partner services, 57.5% were interviewed for partner services, and 55.5% were referred to HIV risk reduction services. Conclusions Among all women receiving CDC-funded HIV testing, Black women and older women were more likely to have HIV-positive tests and new diagnoses. Although women overall may not be at the highest risk for HIV, Black women in this sample are disproportionately affected. Additionally, linkage, referral, and interview services for women need improvement. Targeted testing approaches may ensure effective test-and-treat strategies for women.
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