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Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B Vaccination Among Patients Receiving Medical Care for HIV Infection in the United States, 2009 to 2012
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  • Alternative Title:
    Ann Intern Med
  • Description:

    Persons with HIV infection are at increased risk for hepatitis B virus infection. In 2016, the World Health Organization resolved to eliminate hepatitis B as a public health threat by 2030.


    To estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination among U.S. patients receiving medical care for HIV infection (“HIV patients”).


    Nationally representative cross-sectional survey.


    United States.


    18 089 adults receiving HIV medical care who participated in the Medical Monitoring Project during 2009 to 2012.


    Primary outcomes were prevalence of 1) no documentation of hepatitis B vaccination or laboratory evidence of immunity or infection (candidates to initiate vaccination), and 2) initiation of vaccination among candidates, defined as documentation of at least 1 vaccine dose in a 1-year surveillance period during which patients received ongoing HIV medical care.


    At the beginning of the surveillance period, 44.2% (95% CI, 42.2% to 46.2%) of U.S. HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination. By the end of the surveillance period, 9.6% (CI, 8.4% to 10.8%) of candidates were vaccinated, 7.5% (CI, 6.4% to 8.6%) had no documented vaccination but had documented infection or immunity, and 82.9% (CI, 81.1% to 84.7%) remained candidates. Among patients at facilities funded by the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program (RWHAP), 12.5% (CI, 11.1% to 13.9%) were vaccinated during the surveillance period versus 3.7% (CI, 2.6% to 4.7%) at facilities not funded by RWHAP. At the end of surveillance, 36.7% (CI, 34.4% to 38.9%) of HIV patients were candidates to initiate vaccination.


    The study was not designed to describe vaccine series completion or actual prevalence of immunity.


    More than one third of U.S. HIV patients had missed opportunities to initiate hepatitis B vaccination. Meeting goals for hepatitis B elimination will require increased vaccination of HIV patients in all practice settings, particularly at facilities not funded by RWHAP.

    Primary Funding Source

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

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