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Correlation between X-ray diffraction and Raman spectra of 16 commercial graphene—based materials and their resulting classification
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  • Alternative Title:
    Carbon N Y
  • Description:
    Structural properties of sixteen (16) commercial samples of graphene-based materials (GBM) labelled as graphene, graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide are investigated at room temperature using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed correlation between the results obtained with these two techniques, these samples are classified into three groups: Group A of seven samples consisting of graphitic nanosheets with evaluated thickness ≃20 nm and exhibiting both the 2H and 3R phases in XRD; Group B of six samples exhibiting XRD spectra characteristic of either graphene oxides (GO) or carbons with some order; and Group C of three samples with XRD spectra characteristic of disordered carbons. The relative intensities and widths of D, G, D', 2D and (D + D') bands in the Raman spectra are equally distinguishable between the samples in groups A, B and C. The width of the D-band is the smallest for Group A samples, intermediate for group B and the largest for group C samples. The intensity ratio I(D)/I(G) of the D and G bands in the Raman spectra of the samples is used to quantify the Raman-active defects whose concentration increases in going from samples in Group A to those in Group C.
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