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Cholera : diagnosis and treatment in Haiti
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    Cholera is an acute intestinal infection caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae O-group 1 or O-group 139. Many other serogroups of Vibrio cholerae, with or without the cholera toxin gene, can cause a cholera-like illness. Only toxigenic strains of serogroups O1 and O139 have caused widespread epidemics and are reportable to the World Health Organization (WHO) as “cholera.” Cholera has not been detected in Haiti for many years. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 and O139 are free-living organisms found in fresh and brackish water often in association with zooplankton, shellfish, and aquatic plants. Cholera infections are most commonly acquired from drinking water in which V. cholerae is naturally found or into which it has been introduced from the feces of an infected person. Other vehicles include contaminated fish and shellfish, produce, or leftover cooked grains that have not been properly reheated. Person-to-person transmission is rarely documented, even during epidemics. Cholera_Treatment.pdf
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