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Does Knowing One's Elevated Glycemic Status Make a Difference in Macronutrient Intake?

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  • Alternative Title:
    Diabetes Care
  • Description:
    OBJECTIVE To determine whether macronutrient intake differs by awareness of glycemic status among people with diabetes and prediabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used 24-h dietary recall and other data from 3,725 nonpregnant adults with diabetes or prediabetes aged ≥20 years from the morning fasting sample of the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Diabetes and prediabetes awareness were self-reported; those unaware of diabetes and prediabetes were defined by fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥6.5% and FPG 100–125 mg/dL or HbA1c of 5.7%–6.4%, respectively. Components of nutrient intake on a given day assessed were total calories, sugar, carbohydrates, fiber, protein, fat, and total cholesterol, stratified by sex and glycemic status awareness. Estimates of nutrient intake were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education level, BMI, smoking status, and family history of diabetes. RESULTS Men with diagnosed diabetes consumed less sugar (mean 86.8 vs. 116.8 g) and carbohydrates (mean 235.0 vs. 262.1 g) and more protein (mean 92.3 vs. 89.7 g) than men with undiagnosed diabetes. Similarly, women with diagnosed diabetes consumed less sugar (mean 79.1 vs. 95.7 g) and more protein (mean 67.4 vs. 56.6 g) than women with undiagnosed diabetes. No significant differences in macronutrient intake were found by awareness of prediabetes. All participants, regardless of sex or glycemic status, consumed on average less than the American Diabetes Association recommendations for fiber intake (i.e., 14 g/1,000 kcal) and slightly more saturated fat than recommended (>10% of total kilocalories). CONCLUSIONS Screening and subsequent knowledge of glycemic status may favorably affect some dietary patterns for people with diabetes.
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