Surveillance of work-related asthma in selected U.S. states using surveillance guidelines for state health departments; California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1995 ; and State laws on tobacco control : United States, 1998
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Surveillance of work-related asthma in selected U.S. states using surveillance guidelines for state health departments; California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1995 ; and State laws on tobacco control : United States, 1998

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    • Alternative Title:
      Surveillance of work related asthma ; State laws on tobacco control, United States, 1998 ;
    • Description:
      Surveillance of work-related asthma in selected U.S. states using surveillance guidelines for state health departments : California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey, 1993-1995: PROBLEM/CONDITION: Cases of work-related asthma (WRA) are sentinel health events that indicate the need for preventive intervention. WRA includes new-onset asthma caused by workplace exposure to sensitizers or irritants and preexisting asthma exacerbated by workplace exposures. REPORTING PERIOD: This report reviews cases of WRA identified by state health departments from January 1, 1993, through December 31, 1995, as well as follow-up investigations of cases and associated workplaces conducted through June 30, 1998. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEMS: State-based surveillance and intervention programs for WRA are conducted in California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey as part of the Sentinel Event Notification Systems for Occupational Risks (SENSOR) cooperative agreement program, initiated by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). RESULTS: From 1993 through 1995, a total of 1,101 cases of WRA were identified by SENSOR surveillance staff members in California, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey. Of these 1,101 cases, 19.1% were classified as work-aggravated asthma, and 80.9% were classified as new-onset asthma. Objective evidence substantiating asthma work-relatedness was documented in the medical records of 3.4% of WRA cases identified in the two states (Michigan and New Jersey) where medical records are routinely reviewed for this information. Indoor air pollutants, dusts, cleaning materials, lubricants (e.g., metalworking fluids), and diisocyanates were among the most frequently reported causes of WRA. In addition, a well-recognized cause of occupational asthma - natural rubber latex - was identified in a new setting, the healthcare industry. The most common industries associated with WRA cases included transportation equipment manufacturing (19.3%), health services (14.2%), and educational services (8.7%). Air sampling for agents known to induce occupational asthma was performed in Michigan for comparison with established federal time-weighted average exposure limits. Sixteen (13.4%) of 119 workplaces tested had airborne concentrations exceeding NIOSH recommended exposure limits (RELs); 11 (9.1%) of 121 workplaces had concentrations exceeding permissible exposure limits (PELs) of the Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act (MIOSHA) program. INTERPRETATION: The surveillance data findings confirm well-recognized causes of asthma and have identified new putative causes (e.g., cleaning materials and metalworking fluids). Because the surveillance program depends on physicians' recognizing asthma work-relatedness and reporting diagnosed cases, the data are considered an underestimate of the magnitude of the WRA problem. The data also indicate that physicians are not commonly performing objective physiologic tests to substantiate a WRA diagnosis. Workplace findings suggest a need to evaluate existing exposure standards for specific agents known to induce occupational asthma (e.g., diisocyanates). Case-based surveillance can help improve the recognition, control, and prevention of WRA. The SENSOR model also provides a mechanism for workers and physicians to request workplace investigations aimed at primary prevention for other workers. PUBLIC HEALTH ACTION: NIOSH and state health department representatives are working to establish a long-term agenda for state-based surveillance of work-related conditions and hazards. The results from the SENSOR WRA programs described in this report support inclusion of WRA as a priority condition warranting surveillance at the state level

      State laws on tobacco control, United States, 1998: PROBLEM/CONDITION: State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. RESULTS: Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. INTERPRETATION: State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. ACTIONS TAKEN: The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC's State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System; the laws are collected and updated every quarter. The STATE System also contains state-specific data on the prevalence of tobacco use, tobacco-related deaths, and the costs of tobacco use. Information from the STATE System is available for use by policy makers at the state and local levels to plan and implement initiatives to prevent and reduce tobacco use. In addition, CDC is using this information to assess the ongoing impact of tobacco-control programs and policies on tobacco use. .

    • Content Notes:
      June 25, 1999.

      Includes bibliographical references.

    • Pubmed ID:
      10421216 ; 10421217 ;
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