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Assessment of longwall roof behavior and support loading by linear elastic modeling of the support structure
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    "Longwall roof behavior is characterized by strata displacements in both the face-to-waste (horizontal) and roof-to-floor (vertical) directions. The roof support structure provides resistance to this motion by translation of these displacements into vertical and horizontal support loading. Observations indicate that the shield reacts with both a vertical and horizontal force to uniaxial convergence (displacement). However, there are different magnitudes depending on whether the displacement is vertical or horizontal. This makes it possible to use supports as monitors of strata activity and loading. The Bureau of Mines examined this behavior using a linear elastic model of the support structure with two degrees of freedom. Vertical and horizontal load reactions were related to associated displacement actions of the strata. This was done by determining the stiffness of the shield under controlled vertical and horizontal displacement motions in the Bureau's mine roof simulator. This report provides example predictions of strata convergence and isolation of horizontal support loading due to vertical roof convergence using the linear elastic shield model. The report also examines efforts to determine strata behavior by direct measurement of support displacement." - NIOSHTIC-2 NIOSH no. 10005567
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