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An instrumented pneumatic backfilling system
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    The use of techniques and equipment designed to pneumatically place backfill into an underground mine opening through boreholes for subsidence abatement has historically met with limited success, largely due to the inability to directly monitor the placement of the backfill in the opening. The success of a backfilling project cannot be guaranteed if it is not known whether the underground opening has been completely filled with backfill material. To overcome the inability to directly monitor backfill placement, the U.S. Bureau of Mines developed a pneumatic backfilling system that allows for direct viewing of the backfill as it is placed in an underground mine opening. This system utilizes a recently developed pneumatic nozzle coupled with an instrumentation package that allows for real-time observations and measurements of backfill placed in an underground opening through a borehole. The nozzle utilizes a high-velocity airstream to redirect backfill falling through a pipe in the borehole and directly in front of the nozzle; the airstream redirects and propels the backfill horizontally into the .mine opening at over 100 ft/s. The instrumentation package, mounted directly to the nozzle, contains a video camera, high-intensity lamps, laser-rangefinder, electronic compass, and water sensor. NIOSHTIC no. 10004526
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