Influenza surveillance report no. 94, summary: July 1979-June 1981

Corporate Authors: Center for Prevention Services (U.S.), Division of Immunization.; Center for Infectious Diseases (U.S.), Division of Viral Diseases., Influenza Branch.; Centers for Disease Control, Epidemiology Program Office., Consolidated Surveillance and Communication Activity.; United States, Public Health Service., Office of the Surgeon General., Advisory Committee on Immunization Practice.
Published Date: 1984
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Summary -- A. Influenza season, 1979-1980 -- B. Influenza season, 1980-1981 -- -- Surveillance Methods -- A. Mortality surveillance -- B. Morbidity surveillance -- C. Laboratory reports -- D. International reports -- E. Epidemic investigations -- F. Quality of data -- -- Surveillance Results, 1979-1980 -- A. Mortality surveillance -- B. Morbidity surveillance -- C. Laboratory reports -- D. International reports -- E. Epidemic investigations -- F. Quality of data -- -- Surveillance Results 1980-1981 -- A. Mortality surveillance -- B. Morbidity surveillance -- C. Laboratory reports -- D. International reports -- E. Epidemic investigations -- F. Quality of data -- -- Influenza Vaccine Efficacy -- -- Reye Syndrome -- 1979-1980 season -- 1980-1981 season -- -- Guillain-Barre Syndrome (1979-1980 and 1980-1981) -- -- Adverse Effects Following Influenza Vaccination -- -- References -- -- Appendix I-A. Influenza in the World, December 1979-September 1980 -- Appendix I-B. Distribution of Influenza Viruses Tested at WHO CCI, CDC October 1979-September 1980, by Country and Type -- Appendix I-C. Distribution of Influenza Viruses Tested at WHO CCI, CDC October 1979-September 1980, by Geographic Source and Antigenic Specificity -- Appendix II-A. Influenza in the World, October 1980-September 1981) -- Appendix II-B. Distribution of Influenza Viruses Tested at WHO CCI, CDC October 1980-September 1981, by Country and Type -- Appendix II-C. Distribution of Influenza Viruses Tested at WHO CCI, CDC October 1980-September 1981, by Geographic Source and Antigenic Specificity -- Appendix III A. 1979-80 Recommendations of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices -- Appendix III B. 1980-1981 Recommendations of the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices

"1979-1980 (July 1979-June 1980). The predominant type of influenza virus isolated in the United States during the 1979-1980 influenza season was influenza B. The virus caused widespread outbreaks in several regions, primarily among school-age children, although outbreaks in older groups were reported. For the first time since 1962, influenza B activity was associated with an excess in reported pneumonia and influenza deaths. Influenza B Activity - Early warning of an impending influenza B season was provided from isolations of influenza B viruses during July, August, and September from school children in Hawaii. Influenza B outbreaks in the continental United States were first reported in schools in Oregon during the second week of December. In subsequent weeks, 4S states and the District of Columbia reported isolates and 20 states and the District of Columbia reported widespread outbreaks. Peaks in nationwide morbidity and the number of viral isolates were recorded during the week ending February 9, 1980. Deaths from pneumonia and influenza reported by 121 cities were elevated significantly for the 10-week period between January 19 and March 22, 1980. Most influenza B isolates resembled B/Singapore/222/79. Influenza A (H3N2) Activity - Influenza A(H3N2) isolates were reported from 8 states beginning in late December. The first reported outbreak of influenza A(H3N2) occurred in an Illinois hospital in mid-February. Some influenza A(H3N2) isolates were similar to A/Texas/l/l7, a strain used in the 1979-80 vaccine, and others were similar to A/Bangkok/l/79 a strain demonstrating significant antigenic drift from A/Texas/l/77. Influenza A(H3N2) outbreaks and isolates continued to be reported into June. Influenza A (H1N1) Activity Influenza A(H1N1) isolates and outbreaks were reported among high school students on the Eastern shore of Maryland during early February. Analysis of A(H1N1) isolates showed them to be similar to A/Brazil/ll/78. Sporadic influenza A(H1N1) outbreaks and isolates were reported from the District of Columbia, Delaware, Illinois, Wisconsin, Texas, and Alaska. Reye's Syndrome An association between Reye's syndrome and influenza B activity was again noted. 1980-1981 (July 1980-June 1981) The predominant type of influenza circulating 1n the United States throughout the 1980-81 influenza season was influenza A(H3N2). Early warning was provided by reports of isolates in July and August of 1980. Numerous isolates of influenza A (H1N1) virus were made during the latter two-thirds of the season. This was the second influenza season since 1977 involving substantial cocirculation of influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1) viruses. Influenza A (H3N2) caused widespread outbreaks through the country and affected all age groups while influenza A(H1N1) virus activity was quantitatively less and affected primary children and young adults. During the 1980-81 influenza season, influenza A (H3N2) activity was associated with excess mortality from pneumonia and/or influenza especially in the >65-year age group. Influenza A (H3N2) Activity--No reports of influenza B outbreaks were received during the 1980-81 season and oN1y two isolates were reported. Influenza A(H3N2) Activity--Between July and October small outbreaks of influenza A (H3N2) occurred in Hawaii and Alaska, and sporadic cases were reported from several mid-Western and Western states. The first documented influenza A (H1N2) outbreak in the continental United States was reported in mid-October 1980 in a San Francisco nursing home. During the following weeks 47 states and the District of Columbia reported influenza A(H3N3) isolates and 30 states reported widespread influenza outbreak activity. Excess deaths from pneumonia and/or influenza as reported by 121 cites occurred for a 13-week period beginning December 13 that coincided with a period of maximal reported numbers of influenza A(H3N2) isolates. Influenza A(H3N2) strains isolated were, in general, antigenically intermediate between A/Texas/l/77 and A/Bangkok/l/79 strains. Influenza A (H1N1) Activity - Serological studies conformed a limited influenza A (H1N1) outbreak in Puerto Rico in September. Sporadic influenza A(H1N1) activity in continental United States began in mid-December with a report of virus isolation from Washington, D.C. During tile following weeks, 40 states reported isolations, but only Georgia and Arizona reported outbreaks due to influenza A(H1N1). The influenza A(H1N1) viruses isolated were similar to the A/England/333/80 or A/India/6263/80 strains." p. 1-2

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